trunk in zoology

This is indeed implied by our interpretation of the segmental distribution of gonopods in the Ommatoiulus homeotic specimen described in this paper. trunk, niederl. The trunk is divisible into three parts- an anterior branchiogenital region, a middle hepatic region, and a posterior abdominal or post-hepatic region. Article  Solenomerites I: left solenomerite well developed (Figure 13B), bearing the usual processes (msp, Sp, La); right solenomerite modified: msp absent, replaced by a large rod-like process (rp), apically rounded (similar in shape to the process on second gonopod of the preceding set, and separated from main solenomerite by a lateral incision and a triangular process. Solenomerite broad and complex comprising a short slender process pointing meso-anteriad (msp), and a main posterior branch distally bifurcated into a lateral broad lamella (La) and a mesal slender process (Sp) distally bulging out and curving laterad in an aciculate distal part, pointing distolaterad. Arthropod Struct Dev. Janssen R, Prpic NM, Damen WGM: Gene expression suggests decoupled dorsal and ventral segmentation in the millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda). 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1993.tb00305.x. 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2009.00334.x. 1999, 209: 340-348. Nature. [1913 Webster] 2. This peculiar pattern of expression has been observed in many insects, including Drosophila[5], the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria[6] and the lesser flour beetle Tribolium castaneum[7], but also in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae[8], in the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima[9, 10] as well as – significantly – in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata[11]. HE participated in interpretation of morphological observations and manuscript drafting. However, the segmental distribution of multisegmental patterns does not always agree with the pattern of stepwise addition of segments at the posterior end of the trunk; if these patterns are due to an early expression of positional markers, their segmental distribution may allow formulating suggestions about segmentation mechanisms. Damen WG: Evolutionary conservation and divergence of the segmentation process in arthropods. Segmentation of the millipede trunk as suggested by a homeotic mutant with six extra pairs of gonopods. Article  truncus, Maskulinum, Baumstamm, Rumpf; …   Germanisches Wörterbuch, trunk — ► NOUN 1) the main woody stem of a tree as distinct from its branches and roots. Zoology is the branch of biology concerned with the study animals and animal kingdom. Two consecutive connected distorted posterior gonopods placed on ring 15, presenting normal anterior-posterior polarity, but asymmetrical and consisting (from anterior to posterior) of. Despite its circumstantial nature, the evidence provided by the specimen described in the present paper, as well as by the just discussed teratological specimen of N. conservata[34] suggests that the high or very high number of body segments achieved in the evolution of millipedes may involve segmentation mechanisms additional to those of which we have obtained understanding, mainly based on Drosophila and other model species with smaller, or much smaller, number of segments. Since the dorsal units are subject to fusion in pairs (local anomalies excepted), let’s identify positions by counting in terms of pairs of trunk appendages. Trunk — may refer to:In biology: *Trunk, torso *Trunk, an elephant s proboscis or nose *Trunk (botany), a tree s central superstructureIn containers: *Trunk (luggage) *Trunk (automobile), a large storage compartment *Trunk (motorcycle), a storage… …   Wikipedia, Trunk — Trunk, n. [F. tronc, L. truncus, fr. Find Zoology Icons Set Collection Trunked Animal stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. 2011, 13: 477-487. Google Scholar. 2009, 38: 417-426. Completely different is the case of a male of the polydesmidan Nannaria conservata Chamberlin, 1940 [35], with two additional pairs of gonopods in the place of legs 4 and 12, respectively, i.e. In Oligochaeta, the body between the peristomium and periproct. Variation in the trunk musculature of 28 species of caecilians. Order II. ... Journal of Zoology … [23]), all the foveae were completely empty. In this specimen, the mismatch between dorsal and ventral serial structures is even larger than usual in millipedes, as witnessed by the single ring bearing four pairs of walking legs. Akkari N, Enghoff H: Review of the genus Ommatoiulus in Andalusia, Spain (Diplopoda: Julida) with description of ten new species and notes on a remarkable gonopod structure, the fovea. truncus; Etymologie: s. lat. 1. Cite this article. These limbs are useful for locomotion. 2008, 5: 5-10.1186/1742-9994-5-5. Science. Zoology is a journal devoted to experimental and comparative animal science.It presents a common forum for all scientists who take an explicitly organism oriented and integrative approach to the study of animal form, function, development and evolution. Sets of gonopods, in situ, lateral view. (ANNELIDA) a. Vind stockafbeeldingen in HD voor Outline Zoology Set Chicken Rooster Trunked en miljoenen andere rechtenvrije stockfoto's, illustraties en vectoren in de Shutterstock-collectie. California Privacy Statement, In two instances, extra modified appendages were immediately contiguous with the (normal) gonopods, a circumstance probably caused by a localization of a positional marker (transcription factor or combination of transcription factors) less circumscribed than in normal specimens. 86% Upvoted. On the one hand, studies on the patterns of expression of segmentation genes in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata[1] have shown that the processes of segmentation in the dorsal and the ventral halves of the body are decoupled on the level of the expression of segment polarity genes. share. Cookies policy. Triadobatrachus massinoti, the earliest known lissamphibian (Vertebrata: Tetrapoda) re-examined by μCT scan, and the evolution of trunk length in batrachians Publication Publication. Front Zool. Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology. Nesrine Akkari. 10.1002/bies.20097. Coxites I reduced, paracoxites I deeply modified, appearing as slender processes, distally slightly broadened, apically bearing a protruding mesal process and a highly reduced lateral one (Figures 8B; 9B; 10B; 12C and D). Elke dag worden duizenden nieuwe afbeeldingen van hoge kwaliteit toegevoegd. Thus, coupled with the hypothesis of an early determination of the sites of future non-systemic metamorphosis of walking legs into gonopods, the multiple duplication model of segmentation provides a detailed explanation for the segmental distribution of the extra gonopods in the homeotic specimen described in this paper. ), also trunk of a tree, trunk of the human body, from L. truncus, originally mutilated, cut off. All Science courses are full time, with many student timetables running from 9.00am to 5.00pm or later. 2012, 3538: 1-53. n. [L. truncus, cut off] 1. Janssen R: Diplosegmentation in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata is the result of dorsal fusion. Dev Biol. Maderspacher F, Bucher G, Klingler M: Pair-rule and gap gene mutants in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Enghoff H: Trans-segmental serial colour patterns in millipedes and their developmental interpretation (Diplopoda). Dev Gen Evol. 10.1007/s004270050227. The ‘primary segments’ should be intended as units identified by molecular markers, rather than as overt morphological entities. Ectopic gonopods on ring 8 (Figures 3A; 5A; 6; 7; 8A; 9A and 10A). 417 ?). (A) Left gonopod, antero-apical view. 1997, 390: 29-, CAS  AM provided interpretation and discussion on the developmental aspects. 2009, 11: 318-322. (A) The specimen in toto, lateral view. Therefore, a millipede with ectopic, extra pairs of gonopods may offer precise suggestions as to the process of segmentation. Red, mesomerites; Green, solenomerites; Golden yellow, paracoxites; Bright yellow, vestigial process; Blue, rod-like process. Article  Solenomerites II malformed and reduced on both sides (Figures 9C; 13C, D and 14): Right solenomerite consisting of a reduced, apically notched lamella (La); process (Sp) almost half as long as normal (not exceeding the lamella and lacking the distal bulge and the distal-most part), apically tapering and curved. Ectopic gonopods on ring 8, SEM. 10.1007/s00427-012-0431-7. J Exp Zool. This thread is archived. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. 25. As in Nannaria, and polydesmidans generally, the total number of the animal’s body rings is much lower than in julidans, it seems sensible to suggest that in the former lineage the hypothesized degree of segment multiplication is lower than in the latter. PubMed Google Scholar. Under these circumstances, we suggest that it is sensible to integrate the information derived from both dorsal and ventral segmental patterns, to ‘reconstruct’ the whole sequence of segmentation steps. (C) Ectopic gonopod on ring 16, meso-apical view. Peel A, Chipman AD, Akam M: Arthropod segmentation: beyond the Drosophila paradigm. Lesniewska M, Bonato L, Minelli A, Fusco G: Trunk anomalies in the centipede Stigmatogaster subterranea provide insight into late-embryonic segmentation. Ergo, sauropods might have had trunks. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Left mesomerite showing modifications on the mesal side which consists in the presence of an additional mesal process (Figures 9B and 12A). In this paper we describe a field-collected male of the julid millipede Ommatoiulus moreleti (Lucas, 1860) (Julida: Julidae) with as many as six extra pairs of gonopods and discuss the segmental distribution of these appendages in the framework of alternative models of segmentation. Kagoshima H, Cassata G, Bürglin TR: A Caenorhabditis elegans homeobox gene expressed in the male tail, a link between pattern formation and sexual dimorphism?. It bears two pairs of limbs. 1962, 1: 145-174. Postgraduate courses in Zoology can be included in or have significant overlap with courses on Ecology, Conservation and Biology. Ectopic gonopods on ring 15 (Figures 5B; 8B; 9B; 10B; 11A and 12). 1999, 285: 85-91. 10.1007/s00427-008-0231-2. 2006, 3: 2-10.1186/1742-9994-3-2. It is not known how far independent dorsal vs. ventral segmentation occurs throughout the Arthropoda; besides Glomeris, anyway, it has been recorded in a crustacean, the tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus[3], and in the spider Cupiennius salei[4]. The trunk consist of a large bulge (containing the mesoderm for the presumptive segments of the first and second maxillae (Mx1, Mx2) and first thoracic appendages (Th1)) and a smaller bulge (containing the mesoderm for the second thoracic segment (Th2)). Up to now, developmental genetics has not offered positive evidence in favour of duplications extending beyond a first cycle. Red, mesomerites; Green, solenomerites; Golden yellow, paracoxites. Muscles in the head and trunk (main body) form from different parts of the embryo, and their development uses different genes. Trunk muscles are derived from somites – paired blocks of cells arranged in segments on either side of the midline (which divides the body into left and right halves). Indeed, these specialized appendages are the product of a kind of ‘non-systemic metamorphosis’ [20, 21] of appendages first expressed as normal walking legs during previous post-embryonic stadia. CAS  It is quite remarkable that the extra gonopods all show the typical (although more or less modified) morphology of posterior gonopods whereas the anterior gonopods are not at all duplicated. This hypothesized reduction of an otherwise stereotyped pattern of segmentation at the anterior (and possibly also the posterior) end of the trunk would parallel the pattern of secondary annulation of body segments in leeches [29]. The body is divided into proboscis, collar and trunk. Periodic, multisegmental patterns may actually depend on a diversity of causes. [12–14] are cautious in according either generality or key mechanistic importance to these patterns, but diverging views have been also expressed [14]. The study of zoology includes the interaction of animal kingdom in their ecosystems such as classification, habits, structure, embryology, distribution, evolution, and extinct species. (ARTHROPODA: Crustacea) The postcephalic portion of the body. 10.1046/j.1525-142X.2002.01060.x. Front Zool. In each panel, the left vertical sequence of circles represents the embryonic head (big circle) followed by a few primary segments (smaller circles), the number of which is left indeterminate (fading empty circles toward the posterior). Ectopic gonopods on ring 8, in toto. The base of the solenomerite lodges the fovea (F) from which departs the seminal groove which runs and apically opens at the tip of the process Sp. However, apically the lateral process is much smaller, reduced to a small tip; and basally bearing a small lateral tooth and a protruding pointed process which is slenderer and not serrated (Figures 7C, D; 8A; 9A and 10A). F. tronquer. Google Scholar. 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.02.038. A ‘rod-like’ mesal process (rp), broad and apically blunt, rising from the same basis as the mesomerite and almost reaching it in length, only on the left gonopod (Figures 9B and 11B). 2001, 211: 509-521. See {Truncate}.] To sleep on its pelt repels contagion [寢其皮辟瘟]. However, molecular markers corresponding to N, 2 N, 4 N, 8 N, 16 N units might well be expressed before segments are visible as morphological entities. The once proud Department of Zoology where I spent the last 32 productive years was abolished If a multiplicative process of segmentation is actually involved in all these instances, it might well be that it rests on the iteration of a phylogenetically older, largely conserved mechanism elements of which we expect to be generally shared by arthropods. what eventually develops as the collum plus the three rings with one leg pair each. Ommatoiulus moreleti However, for a four-year bachelor’s degree in zoology or a related field, the median annual estimated cost is about $39,666 with an average four-year degree total cost of $158,664. CAS  On the other hand, among the many genes involved in the segmentation of arthropods, some genes have been discovered to be expressed, at least transiently, in bisegmental, rather than segmental patterns. Solenomerites I composed of the three main processes described above but much reduced in size and with a completely empty fovea (Figures 8 and 9A). Annee Biol. Fauna Ibérica X (Ref.CGL2010-22267-C07-01) extended N. A.’s stay in Madrid. Evol Dev. Chipman AD, Akam M: The segmentation cascade in the centipede Strigamia maritima: involvement of the Notch pathway and pair-rule gene homologues. As suggested by a reviewer of an earlier version of our paper, the asymmetry observed in both instances may well have been caused by a left/right phase shift in a posterior clock mechanism, but the two ‘monsters,’ as far as we can guess from the limited descriptions available in the literature, did not show anomalies in segment number or shape, but only in the kinds of appendages specified in the proximity of the normal gonopods. (D) Left gonopod, posterior view. 2002, 4 (2): 127-132. Article  All Free. NA carried out the morphological description and illustration. Solenomerites II complete, with significantly larger processes (compared to solenomerites I), showing a broader lamella (la), a larger (msp) and a more developed and longer process (Sp) (Figures 8A and 9A). It bears two pairs of limbs. Evol Dev. In the homeotic specimen, only one ring (13 + 14) corresponds to leg pairs 20–23. There is a problem, however, in mining the literature for this kind of evidence, because the most interesting examples, those for which we could nowadays formulate tentative explanatory hypotheses in terms of gene (mis)expression, are often concealed under poorly informative terminology and are seldom described in satisfactory detail. In our specimen there are two sets of gonopods, each of them involving four consecutive pairs of appendages: 8 to 11 for the anterior set, 24 to 27 for the posterior set. Coxites and paracoxites I (Figure 13C and D) similar in shape to those on the ectopic gonopod of ring 15 but more reduced. Part of zoology. Nulsen C, Nagy LM: The role of wingless in the development of multibranched crustacean limbs. Tools of Zoology Depending on which of these branches you happen to be working in, the tools will vary. Gonopods on ring 7, SEM. Students can Download Bio Zoology Chapter 2 Kingdom Animalia Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf, Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Book Solutions Guide Pdf helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations. Minelli A, Bortoletto S: Myriapod metamerism and arthropod segmentation. The specimen presents the secondary sexual characters common for julids consisting of the presence of a well-developed mandibular stipital lobes and a hook-shaped first pair of legs (Figure 2). Specifically, a teratological specimen of the polydesmidan species Pseudoeurydesmus baguassuensis Schubart, 1944 was found to possess the left leg 7 replaced by an extra gonopod [33]. All illustrations were edited using Adobe Lightroom 4.3, Adobe Photoshop CS.5, and assembled in plates with Indesign CS5.5. Janssen R, Prpic NM, Damen WGM: A review of the correlation of tergites, sternites, and leg pairs in diplopods. In comparative terms based on the sequence of ventral appendages (walking legs and gonopods), this ring represents anyway the equivalent to rings 13 + 14 of a normal millipede. (B) Posterior view. Damen WGM: Parasegmental organization of the spider embryo implies that the parasegment is an evolutionary conserved entity in arthropod embryogenesis. Development. (A) Left gonopod, antero-apical view. The second alternative has been generally favoured, as it is more easily brought into agreement with the basic assumption that the trunk of arthropods is fundamentally composed of segments with one pair of appendages each. To lop off; to curtail; to truncate; to maim. The paracoxite (Px) emerges from a reduced coxite (Co) and consists of an enlarged plate, apically reduced and bearing two apical slender processes and a broader basal one pointing laterad and showing several serrations. 2008, 319: 160-169. save hide report. (B) Posterior view. Previous to our case, the literature dealing with teratological millipedes (largely summarized in [33]) included only three cases of homeotic males with ectopic gonopods. (B) Right gonopod, antero-apical view. CAS  A tentative interpretation for the segmental composition of the anterior part of the trunk of the homeotic specimen is provided in Figure 15. Cervical sympathetic: It is the outer­most nerve of the neck region. Zoology, or animal biology, is the field of biology that involves the study of animals. However, current understanding of arthropod segmentation suggests that framing the question in terms of equivalence of millipede rings to conventional (or ‘archetypical’) arthropod segments is not necessarily meaningful. Zool J Linn Soc. Out of the trunked stock. Zoology: The scientific study of the behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution of … tronc alms box in a church (12c. Steiner mentions Zoology along with other topics in Discussions with Teachers (1919) and The Renewal of Education (1920). Correspondence to Up to now, no corresponding studies have been performed on representatives of the clade Juliformia, but these are likely to agree in this mechanism of segmentation with the Pentazonia, to which Glomeris marginata belongs. (B) Gonopods on ring 7, posterior view. Google Scholar. A manual of zoology. A different question is the specification of anterior vs. posterior gonopods, with the associated question of why all ectopic gonopods in the specimen described in this paper are (more or less complete) posterior gonopods, up to four consecutively. 11) from the last (resp. Article  The mismatch between dorsal and ventral trunk features along the millipede trunk was long a subject of controversy, largely resting on alternative interpretations of segmentation. However, their position along the trunk is very likely fixed much earlier, during embryonic development, when the segmental organization of the trunk is only partially deployed. 10.1046/j.1525-142x.2000.00030.x. The specimen also exhibited normal gonopods as appendage pair 8, as characteristic of polydesmidans. Most authors, e.g. Mesomerites I broadened and compressed anterobasad, distally bent anteriad; a process (mdp) with a broader base connecting to mesomerite especially on the right gonopod, shorter than normal, apically acuminate and pointing posteriad instead of laterad on both (Figures 6A; 7A and B). Janssen et al.’s [1, 26, 27] investigations on the patterns of expression of segmentation genes in Glomeris marginata have shown that segmentation in millipedes is obtained independently (to some extent) in the dorsal vs. ventral halves of the trunk and only put in register after the segmental units, both dorsal and ventral ones, have been established. 10.1242/dev.00099. 2000, 2: 35-48. News and videos on animal life sciences. [Obs.] (B) Right ectopic gonopod on ring 15. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Front Zool. Development. This circumstance, although spatially limited, adds to the evidence pointing to a degree of decoupling between dorsal and ventral segmentation in millipedes. There are two predictions, at least, in respect to which the multiple duplication model performs much better than alternative models of arthropod segmentation. Ectopic gonopods on rings 15 and 16, in toto. There is an overall loss of structures from anterior to posterior, most visibly on the paracoxites reduced to slender processes on the posteriormost ectopic gonopods. 10.1016/j.asd.2009.05.001. (C) Left gonopod, postero-apical view. By contrast, cells that give rise to head muscles are arranged in a continuous mass. Two predictions were suggested to test the plausibility of multiple-duplication models of segmentation: first, a specific pattern of evolvability of segment number in those arthropod clades in which segment number is not fixed (e.g., epimorphic centipedes and millipedes); second, the occurrence of discrete multisegmental patterns due to early, initially contiguous positional markers. EsTHERiiD.E. Mesomerites II more or less of the same size as the preceding ones, bearing a much larger (compared to mesomerites I) process (mdp), pointing anteriad (Figures 8A and 9A). Body laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalve shell, compound eyes fused; male very rare. At the base of the lateral ridge a conspicuous ovoid telopodite remnant is inserted. Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Solutions Chapter 2 Kingdom Animalia The vertebrae are amphicoelous. The trunk is wider at the front and tapers behind. Solenomerites I reduced, bearing processes msp, Sp, La, all reduced in size. An additional small globular process (vp) with a tiny anterior projection, sitting at the basis of the mesal extension of the coxite, only on the left gonopod (Figure 9B). (B) Posterior view. , normal male: head and anterior body rings; lateral view. The mo has elephant trunk, rhinoceros eyes, cow tail, and tiger paws [貘者象鼻犀目牛尾虎足]. Dev Dyn. 3) the elongated, prehensile nose of an elephant. Front Zool 11, 6 (2014). Minelli A: A three-phase model of arthropod segmentation. As a consequence, the articulated rings of the millipede trunk are frequently called diplosegments, or diplosomites. (D) Left gonopod, posterior view. Zoology (includes a research project where students work alongside researchers in areas as diverse as animal genetics, evolution, freshwater biology or conservation and biodiversity.) 1 comment. Google Scholar. 2002, 129: 5461-5472. 10.1016/j.cub.2004.07.026. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. It is also known as animal biology. Both Sp and msp are completely missing and replaced by a low, marginally serrated process connecting the lateral lamella (La) to the mesal margin of mesomerite. Coxites and paracoxites II (Figure 12) reduced, with seemingly broken apical lateral process. Normal, complete set showing all the structures usual for O. moreleti, i.e., anterior gonopod or promerite, and posterior gonopod. (D) Left gonopod, posterior view. Some masters courses in Zoology contain elements of research or training to work in Zoological research and others have an emphasis on practical skills in other careers within Zoology, such as working in a Zoo or Animal Conservation. 2004, 268: 89-104., r/zoology. Tail, in zoology, prolongation of the backbone beyond the trunk of the body, or any slender projection resembling such a structure. The word zoology comes from the Greek words zōion, meaning “animal”, and logos, meaning “the study of”. Similarly, a teratological specimen of Ommatoiulus moreleti from Madeira [34] had appendage pairs 8 and 9 in form of normal gonopods, followed by an atrophied leg 10 and an additional malformed posterior gonopod at the level of leg 11. Ectopic gonopods on ring 16 (Figures 5B; 9C; 10C; 11B; 13 and 14). PubMed  (A) Gonopods on rings 7–8, antero-apical view. In our specimen, this further hypothesized marker remains localized to the position (appendage pair 8) where normal anterior gonopods are formed, and does not extend into segmental positions were extra gonopods (all of the posterior type) are formed. Springer Nature. Explore each divisions of zoology in detail here (study of different animals). On each of the three body rings with two sets of abnormal posterior gonopods, generally the posterior set is a bit larger than the anterior; the latter more constricted and reduced. 10.1016/j.ydbio.2003.12.021. We are also grateful to three referees who provided valuable comments on a previous draft of this article. 10.1002/dvdy.21157. PubMed  Brolemann HW: Description d’une race française de Schizophyllum moreleti (Lucas) et d’une anomalie d’un mâle de la race typique. 1988, 33: 323-343. But last year, in 1999, the powers that be at my University got restless and decided to reorganize biology once again. Excretion is by a single proboscis gland or glomerulus situated in the proboscis. 1980, 287: 795-801. 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2011.00504.x. Process (msp) absent (or not fully formed?) This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Terms and Conditions, Google Scholar. extremities trunk [n2] long nose of animal beak, proboscis, prow, snoot*, snout; concept 399 trunk [n3] …   New thesaurus, Trunk — »Getränk (das man gerade zu sich nimmt); gewohnheitsmäßiger Genuss von Alkohol«: Das altgerm. However, here the antero-mesal process is more developed, longer, distally broader, apically strongly narrowed into a slender curved process (msp?). We describe a unique case of a homeotic millipede with 6 extra pairs of ectopic gonopods replacing walking legs on rings 8 (leg-pairs 10-11), 15 (leg-pairs 24-25) and 16 (leg-pairs 26-27); we discuss the segmental distribution of these appendages in the framework of alternative models of segmentation and present an interpretation of the origin of the distribution of the additional gonopods. Download this stock image: . Minelli A: Holomeric vs meromeric segmentation: a tale of centipedes, leeches, and rhombomeres. Article  representing 24 of the 33 genera and all five families. La and Sp normal (Figure 14). As illustrated by Enghoff [19] on trans-segmental colour patterns in millipedes, these patterns often correlate with the successive batches of segments added with subsequent moults. Left solenomerite very rudimentary, showing a small lateral lamella. Evol Dev. Dev Biol. The number of secondary segments deriving from each primary segment is assumed to be lower (four rather than 16) in respect to the julidans, in agreement with the smaller total number of body rings in adult polydesmidans, compared to adult julidans. Latero-apical view of ectopic gonopods on ring 8, 15, 16. (B) Ectopic gonopod on ring 15, mesal view. There is generally a loss of symmetry in the ectopic gonopods as evidenced by the presence of additional/rudimentary and not fully developed processes.

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